By Herman Witsius in Sacred Dissertations on the Lord’s Prayer

ΑΓΙΑΣΘΗΤΩ ΤΟ ΟΝΟΜΑ ΣΟΥ

It is a very extraordinary and almost incredible familiarity of intercourse which a man is permitted to maintain with God in holy prayer. That a base wretch,—a sinner under sentence of condemnation, a worm that deserves to be trampled under foot,—should be admitted to intercourse with the Divine Being, whose majesty the brightest inhabitants of heaven approach with lively praise, and yet with the lowliest adoration, is certainly a high privilege. To be conducted to the throne of grace by the only begotten Son of God,—to have the words and the very groans supplied by the influence of the Spirit of prayer,—to be permitted to express, with the utmost boldness1 and freedom, every desire and wish which is not inconsistent with the honour of God, or the true interests of the worshipper,—is a privilege higher still. But the most wonderful of all, and one which almost exceeds belief, is that a man should be allowed to plead, not only for himself and for his neighbour, but for God,—that the kingdom of God and the glory of God should be the subject of his prayer,—as if God were unwilling to be glorious, or to exercise dominion except in answer to the prayers of believers. The kingdom of God, and God the great king, form unquestionably the subject of the seventy-second Psalm. Among other lofty sentiments, we may mention a very remarkable one, contained in the 15th verse: Prayer also shall be made for him, for the king, continually, and daily shall he be praised. The honour of praying for God, which is thus granted to a human being, ought to be so highly prized by a believing soul that, loving God above all things, even above itself, it should overlook for a time its own concerns, until the matters which relate to the glory and kingdom of God have been carefully settled.

And yet the soul is at no time less forgetful of itself than when it is thus employed. Not to mention that our desires cannot be directed to a nobler object, our prayers for God are chiefly prayers for ourselves. It would throw great dishonour on the all-sufficiency of God to imagine, for a moment, that the perfection or blessedness of Him, who has all things in and from himself, can receive any addition from our prayers. Anything which lies in our power to accomplish, can only fulfil that eternal purpose by which God determined to manifest his glory, and to display his attributes and perfections in his wonderful works. When we sincerely declare that we take pleasure in those contemplations, we not only derive from them the most pure and holy of all enjoyments, but find our glory in the glory of God, our happiness in the kingdom of God. A devout prayer that the glory of God may be promoted implies, at the same time, a request that he will be pleased to appear wonderful and glorious2 in his communications to us, which is the summit of our happiness. And this is the reason why our Lord enjoined that the hallowing of the name of God should form the commencement of our prayers.

In explaining this petition, three things fall to be considered. I. What are we to understand by the name of God? II. What is the Hallowing of the name of God? III. Why do we ask from God himself the hallowing of his name?

The name of God denotes God himself, so far as he manifests himself and his perfections, by works and words, to rational creatures. Nothing occurs more frequently in the style of the ancient Hebrews than to call God The name of the heavens,3 or simply that name.4 That thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, the Lord thy God.5 In the same sense it is said, the Lord hear thee in the day of trouble and the name of the God of Jacob, that is, the God of Jacob himself, defend thee.6 And again, Let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay himself upon his God.7 The name of God is not some empty thing, which merely tingles in the ears, or holds out a picture to the eyes, or produces an illusion on the mind. It is Being Itself.8 The most sublime sentiment concerning God which can be uttered, or written, or conceived, falls infinitely below the sublimity of God’s own existence. This is what Agur intended to convey. What is his name? and what is his Son’s name? if thou canst tell.9 Canst thou so understand or express the divine nature, that, after thy utmost efforts, thou mayest venture to say, This is God, and he is nothing more? No variety of spoken or written language, no conceptions, from whatever source they may have been obtained, can represent the thousandth part of that excellence which is found in God. Forasmuch as there is none like unto thee, O Lord, and thy name is great in might.10

The name of God, however, does not strictly denote God, as he exists in himself, but as he reveals and makes himself known to rational creatures. This is done both in the works of creation and common providence, and in the works of grace and of glory. But, most of all, he reveals himself in the word of his gracious covenant, in which he shows how God may be denominated the Saviour of sinful man, with the full display of all his perfections. Thus God, when he proclaims his name before Moses, dwells chiefly on his truth, grace, and justice.11 And our Lord Jesus Christ, after publishing his Gospel and finishing his work, declares, I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world.12 Having conveyed instruction, both by word and deed, he had brought home to the consciences of the elect those just views of the divine character which lead to his praise and glory, and which contain solid reasons why men should call him their God. Beyond this the inquiry regarding the name of God need not be pursued to subtle distinctions. Let us only remember that God himself, so far as his attributes are made known to us, is denoted by the name of God.

God is Hallowed when he is declared to be holy. Now, the holiness of God is the purest love of his attributes and perfections. Or, if the expression be preferred, it is that purity of the divine nature which renders every act of his understanding and will consistent with his perfections, and fitted to promote their manifestation. The complex whole, if we may so speak, of the perfections of God, of which holiness is the grace and ornament,—all the divine magnificence,13—all the glory, the shining brightness, as it were, of all the perfections taken together,—all is included under the name of holiness. Accordingly, he is said to be glorious in holiness.14 As the holiness of God is absolutely perfect, it is obvious that God cannot be hallowed15 by any addition to the holiness of his nature, but merely by the declaration of that holiness which belongs to him.

That declaration is made both by God and by creatures; by all the creatures after their own manner, but chiefly by rational creatures. God sanctifies Himself by those works which contain plain, striking, and convincing proofs of his wisdom, goodness, justice, and other attributes. Thus, God is sometimes said to have sanctified and glorified himself, when he inflicted signal punishment on transgressors. “I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.”16 “This is it that the Lord spake, saying, I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified:”17 that is, I will show the glory of my holiness in the just punishment of those who do not carefully observe the ordinances of my worship. This interpretation is suggested by the Spirit of God himself, in the words of Ezekiel—“Thus saith the Lord God, behold, I am against thee, O Zidon; and I will be glorified in the midst of thee: and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her.”18 Similar instances are to be found in the writings of the same prophet.19

In none of his works has God more eminently sanctified his name than in claiming his elect, whom he has purchased by the blood of Christ, to be his peculiar people. That work contains an incomparably bright exhibition of all the Divine perfections. There his love toward the human race,20 his wisdom, kindness, power, truth, justice, and particularly the attribute of which we are now speaking, Holiness,—shine with surpassing brightness. His holiness appears in making provision for restoring to sinful man that image of himself which had been shamefully effaced. His holiness appears in refusing to do this until he had expressed his abhorrence of sin, not only by the plainest language, but by deeds, by exemplary punishment.21 His holiness appears in requiring that, in order to the sanctification of his elect, the punishment should be endured by His own most holy Son, who freely offered himself for that purpose, and in so impressive a manner, that the display of the strictest justice and purest holiness filled heaven and earth with amazement. His holiness appears in raising his Son, after the completion of his sufferings, from the dead, and crowning him with glory and honour,22 by which it was made evident that the holy sacrifice of his Son was pleasing in his sight. In fine, his holiness appears in transforming those who had been redeemed by the blood of his Son to his glorious image, that he might be the first-born among many brethren.23

These and similar views, there is reason to believe, were present to the mind of Christ when, immediately before proceeding to give full satisfaction to Divine justice, he broke out into these words:24 Now is my soul troubled by the contemplation of those dreadful sufferings which await me. And what shall I say? I should wish my feelings to be universally known, but it is difficult to find words to express them. Father—save me from this hour. If it be possible, let my sorrow pass away from me. But for this cause came I unto this hour. I know that these sufferings must be steadfastly endured. My office as Mediator was undertaken on the express condition of paying that price, to satisfy thy justice, and redeem my elect. And I retract not the condition. Therefore, Father glorify thy name.25 Display thy holiness and justice in the sufferings which I now cheerfully present myself to endure. But display those attributes likewise in setting me free, and in justifying my people, when satisfaction shall have been offered. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, by many evidences of my perfections in the government of the universe, and, latest of all, by giving thee to the world, by the preaching of the gospel, and by the performance of those astonishing works by which the truth of the gospel has been confirmed. And will glorify it again, by accepting thy satisfaction, and by bestowing on thee and on thy people its righteous fruits. The amount of the whole is, that, in the work of our redemption, the name of God is hallowed or sanctified in a remarkable manner. In this manner God sanctifies himself.

The name of God is hallowed by all the creatures after their own manner, so far as the glory of the Divine perfections shining in them are capable of being seen by angels and men. David presented the following requests: “Bless the Lord, all his works, in all places of his dominion.”26 “Let all thy works praise thee, O Lord.”27 “Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him all, ye stars of light. Praise him, ye heaven of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens. Let them praise the name of the Lord: for he commanded, and they were created.”28 And the request was not in vain. For, truly, “the heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handy-work. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.”29 They declare his glory, when their wonderful order and beautiful exactness invite the contemplation of men and angels, and lead them to celebrate the praises of God.

Strictly speaking, however, the name of God is hallowed by rational creatures only; I. When they apply their mind to know and acknowledge the Divine perfections. “Whoso is wise, and will observe these things, even they shall understand the loving-kindness of the Lord.”30 Here is found the perfection of human wisdom, and if man can have any ground of boasting, it is also found here. “Let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which exercise loving-kindness, judgment, and righteousness in the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the Lord.”31 II. When they celebrate those perfections: which is done by angels, “Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength;”32 and by all the blessed inhabitants of heaven,33 whose example ought to be followed by saints who continue to dwell upon the earth.34 III. When their whole life is so regulated that their actions, as well as their words, tend to glorify God.35 This was viewed by the Jewish teachers as an essential branch of hallowing the name of God. Such is the import of a quotation given by Drusius from the book Musar. Since all our works ought to be assimilated to the works of the blessed God, whatever we do that is good and right contributes obviously to sanctify his great name.… The amount of what we have said is this: since we are capable of resembling him in our works, on them depends the sanctification or profanation of his Name.

When we pray to God that his name may be hallowed, we declare, I. Our true and sincere desire to seek his glory above all things. “The desire of our soul is to thy name, and to the remembrance of thee.”36 “Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee: let such as love thy salvation say continually, The Lord be magnified.”37 II. That the glorifying of his name must proceed from God himself, who alone is competent to display his own perfections. He is “Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.”38 “Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; let thy glory be above all the earth.”39 “Unto thy name give glory for thy mercy and for thy truth’s sake.”40 III. We pray that he would make us fit for the hallowing his name. (1.) By “enlightening the eyes of our understanding,” that we may be enabled to see his perfections in a clear light.41 (2.) By moving our hearts, so that we may be at liberty to say with David, “My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed; I will sing and give praise.” (3.) By exciting our tongue to praise him. “O Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall show forth thy praise.”42 (4.) By regulating our whole life, through the influences of his Spirit, so as to promote the glory of his name, that in all he may appear “wonderful and glorious.”43

The place which this petition occupies—as First in order—implies a declaration, that no other object is more earnestly or cordially desired by us than the Hallowing of the Name of God. This is the ultimate end to which every thing else ought to be referred. For this we should regard the supports of life and life itself as truly valuable. For this, the means of our salvation, nay, salvation itself, should appear to us worthy to be desired. We are not at liberty to rest satisfied with any good thing which we possess, so far as it is ours, or contributes to our advantage or enjoyment. Our very happiness must not be sought merely for the delight which the possession of it will afford us. A higher object is, that God’s own property, which we truly are, may be beautified and enriched,—that the blessings from on high, which complete our happiness, may prepare us more fully for celebrating the excellencies of the Divine nature,—and that God himself may behold with delight the riches of his grace. Our highest happiness is to be entirely devoted to the Divine glory. Our highest rejoicing is to rejoice in hope of the glory of God.44

If we wish to have it believed that we are sincere in such declarations, our first care ought to be, that our words may be proved by our actions. Can they be supposed to be sincere in seeking the glory of God, who are the slaves of personal distinction? whose faculties and possessions, whose wildest schemes and pursuits, are compelled to minister to one single object—their own ambition? who take such pleasure in their wealth, their honours, their ingenuity or skill, their eloquence, their learning, their celebrated exploits,—who are so highly elated by those attainments, or, it may be, by the mere imagination of them which their own foolish minds have indulged,—that they make an idol of themselves, and demand, the notice and applause of the crowd?45 who regard the gifts of the Divine bounty as the rewards of their own fancied excellence, and who are proud of possessing, or of imagining that they possess, some rare and superior endowments?46 who employ the very worship of God, not as the means of “giving unto the Lord the glory due unto his name,”47 but chiefly, as an opportunity of making themselves appear to be holy and devout, and who not only cherish lofty notions of that holiness, but boast of it in the presence of others, and in their addresses to God himself?48 who, like brute beasts, “regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation of his hands,”49 or at least consider it so slightly, that, like most philosophers, they confine their attention to second causes, and, naturally or wilfully blind, overlook the astonishing displays of the perfections of God which are contained in his works? who, “while they make their boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonour God, and cause his name to be blasphemed?”50 who conduct themselves in such a manner, that, whatever may be their pretences, they assuredly mock God every time they utter the words, Hallowed be thy Name? But their mockery is vain. In opposition to their strongest wishes,—in their own persons, if they shall proceed in their wicked career,—the name of God will be hallowed by an exhibition of his justice, and by awful severity of punishment.

Again, when we claim God as our Father, and sincerely desire that his name may be hallowed, we must use our utmost exertions to promote the glory of God. The powers of understanding which he has given us must be employed in contemplating, knowing, and meditating on his perfections, which he has graciously made known to us in the works of nature and grace, and in the word of his supernatural revelation. The smallest object that can present itself to the eye or to the mind, will supply the richest materials for this purpose. It is only necessary for us to learn to perceive in visible objects the invisible things of God,51 and to employ the creatures as ladders for ascending to the Most High God. We must lay it down as a principle, that all the excellence, light, and beauty, which is found in the creatures, exists in the highest perfection in the Creator. We must accustom ourselves to view earthly objects, whether existing in nature or in the arrangements of society, as representations of spiritual and heavenly objects, and of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.52 Our Lord Jesus was eminently skilled in this art. The most trival object he met with,—a vessel for drawing water,53 or a grain of mustard-seed,54 supplied him with an illustration of the kingdom of heaven. He advised his disciples to learn this art, and to apply to grosser objects the chemical skill, which will extract a spirit out of them by the alembic of devout meditation.55 Above all, we must frequently meditate on those works of God which are only taught in the school of Grace, and by which he has manifested his glory in obtaining eternal redemption for us.56 The highest powers of the understanding cannot be directed to a nobler object, or employed in a nobler manner, than in the contemplation of the truth itself, and of all the sublime and saving truths concerning himself which that truth has been pleased to reveal. In this manner, the name of God is hallowed by our understanding.

But we must not stop here. The knowledge of the Divine perfections must produce in us love, reverence, wonder, and adoration. Let us frequently, out of the full treasure of our heart, exclaim: “O Lord, how manifold are thy wonders! in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches.”57 “O Lord, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens. When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and stars, which thou hast ordained: what is man, that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou visitest him?”58 “I will hope continually, and will yet praise thee more and more. My mouth shall show forth thy righteousness and thy salvation all the day: for I know not the number thereof. I will go in the strength of the Lord God: I will make mention of thy righteousness, even of thine only. I will also praise thee with the psaltery, even thy truth, O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel. My lips shall greatly rejoice when I sing unto thee; and my soul which thou hast redeemed. My tongue also shall talk of thy righteousness all the day long.”59 Such views of the character of Jehovah cannot be better or more affectingly expressed than in the words dictated by the Holy Spirit. It becomes our duty, therefore, to read, meditate, and ponder these words, that, experiencing those devout affections which the holy prophets expressed, we may be enabled to make them our own.

I cannot refrain, however, from quoting some observations of Epictetus,60 a Gentile philosopher, but in whose writings something greatly superior to what might have been expected from a philosopher and a Gentile may be discovered. “If we were in good health, what else would we have to do in public or private but to adore, and praise, and bless the Deity? While we were digging, or ploughing, or partaking food, it would be proper for us to sing a hymn to God. He is the great God who gave us instruments for cultivating the earth. He is the great God who gave us hands, who gave us the capacity of receiving and digesting our food, who caused us to grow without perceiving it, and to breathe while we were asleep. These would deserve separate ascriptions of praise, and a hymn of far loftier strain would be due for that faculty of reason by which these matters are understood.… What else can a lame old man like myself do but praise God? Were I a nightingale, I would perform the part of a nightingale. Were I a swan, I would perform the part of a swan. But since I possess reason, my duty is to praise God. This is my business. This I follow. I will not desert my post while it continues to be mine. “I exhort you,” he adds, “to sing the same hymn.” O how ought we to be ashamed of our indolence and inactivity when we read such a holy discourse, such a pious instruction from the pen of a Gentile! Did a philosopher speak and act in this manner? What may be expected from us who are Christians?

As we ought to praise God in his works, we ought to have the same purpose in our own actions. We must do everything with a view to the divine glory. “In all thy ways acknowledge him.”61 It is a remarkable sentiment which occurs in Pirke Aboth, Let all thy works be directed to the name of the heavens,62 that is, to God. With this agrees the injunction of the Apostle Paul, Whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men.63 In the ordinary duties of civil society, a Christian performs the same actions as other men, but not in the same manner. They perform them in a civil, he in a spiritual manner; they to men and to themselves, he, to God. Not in pretence,64 but from the soul,65 heartily. Not in some things which appear to have a more direct reference to God, but in all things, whatsoever ye do. Not in a wavering or undecided manner,—attending to the Divine law when it is found convenient, and, at other times, consulting the views of men, but as to the Lord, and not unto men. Such is likewise the import of another injunction of the same Apostle respecting daily food. Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.66 This does not mean that, in every action of our lives, we must have an immediate and direct intention to glorify God. That is impossible in the nature of things. But the children of God ought to hold it as a firm and unalterable principle, applicable to all occasions, that they are dedicated to God; that in all their thoughts, words, and actions, there must be some manifestation of the perfections and glory of God; that they must obey his precepts in all things, and do every thing from a desire to please him. The reader will find my views on this subject stated very fully in the Economy of the Covenants.67

The propriety and beauty of this principle would seem to have been perceived, in some measure, by Epictetus,68 who bids us look to God in every thing small or great.69 From the writings of Epictetus, it appears to have been adopted by the Emperor Marcus Antoninus, whose golden admonition to himself is to the following effect,70 “As surgeons always have their instruments at hand, ready for instant application, so do you keep constantly in view those principles, by the aid of which you will perceive your duties to God and to man. Do71 every thing even the smallest in such a manner as to remember the close connection of both with each other. For you will not transact well any thing human without a mutual reference to what is divine, nor, on the other hand, (anything divine without a reference to what is human). These quotations must not be interpreted as implying an admission on our part, that the great duties of religion, connected with hallowing the name of God, may be equally well learned from the instructions of philosophers, as from the records of inspiration. Whatever is stated by philosophers falls infinitely below the sublimity of the inspired volume, and may, perhaps, have been derived from that source. You will scarce find in their writings anything approaching to the admirable passages which we have now quoted till a period subsequent to the publication of the Gospel. But to receive from heathens instructions and examples of so excellent a description, is fitted to excite a holy jealousy.

Whatever superiority the Gospel possesses above all the instructions conveyed by philosophers, by legislators, by interpreters of the sacred mysteries of heathenism,—it is proper that Christians should exhibit, by a superior course of life, in which the image of their heavenly Father, the power of the merits of Christ, and the efficacy of the regenerating and sanctifying Spirit, shall brightly shine. It contributes, in the highest possible manner, to hallowing the name of God, that they who profess it shall be “blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom they shine as lights in the world.”72 Their uprightness and godliness must leave all the showy virtue of the Gentiles, and all the scrupulous accuracy of Scribes and Pharisees, at an immense distance behind them. These, in short, are “the fruits of righteousness,” with which we must be “filled,” and “which are by Jesus Christ unto the glory and praise of God.”73 “Herein,” says our Lord, “is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.”74 Nay more, we shall thus be “the glory” of God, and “of Christ.”75

Besides, this glory of God should be so dear to us that nothing could grieve us more than contempt of the Divine Being. “As with a sword in my bones,” said David, “mine enemies reproach me; while they say daily unto me, where is thy God?”76 We should be prepared to sacrifice to God any glory which we might call our own, and for His sake to be covered with shame. In this respect we have the example of God’s own Son, “I have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.”77 Now, in what manner, or by what work, had Christ glorified the Father? The Apostle Paul informs us, “Looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith; who, for the joy set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame.”78 All the adopted sons of God ought to follow this example of the blessed Jesus, reckoning it an honour that “they are counted worthy to suffer shame for his name.”79 Let them magnanimously walk forward in the royal path of holiness, “by honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report;”80 having no ambition81 but “to be accepted of God;”82 indifferent about all things else, though they should be “buffeted, reviled, defamed, made as the filth of the world and the offscouring of all things.”83

The saint who is under the influence of those devout affections, may happen to see some of his brethren enjoying a larger share of the gifts of Providence, occupying a more honourable place in the house of God, or labouring with greater zeal for the advancement of the Divine glory. In such a case he will not be moved with envy. It will give him pleasure that the name of God is hallowed, either by himself or by others. Conscious that he cannot adequately or properly give glory to God, he will rejoice that others are ready “to supply his lack of service,”84 and to contribute far beyond his own ability to the accomplishment of this great work. Whatever can celebrate, in any way, the praises of God, will receive his warm invitation and concurrence. “Sing unto the Lord a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles and the inhabitants thereof. Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing; let them shout from the top of the mountains. Let them give glory unto the Lord, and declare his praise in the islands.”85

The duty of hallowing the name of God, in the manner now explained, may be enforced by a variety of motives. No work in which we could engage would be more excellent, delightful, advantageous, or desirable. It is the work of the blessed in heaven, who delightfully spend in it an endless eternity, and who find in its constant and uninterrupted exercise the most perfect tranquillity and rest. To dedicate all that we are, and all that we can perform, to the advancement of the glory of God—is our own glory. To whom shall we give them if they are withheld from God? To what shall they be devoted but to the noblest of all possible objects?

Why has the Christian been made what he is? That God may be glorified in him. For this purpose he was created, and endowed with a capacity of knowing the things of God, that he may say, “Where is God my Maker, who giveth songs in the night; who teacheth us more than the beasts of the earth, and maketh us wiser than the fowls of heaven?”86 For this purpose he was elected by God through Jesus Christ, “according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us acceptable in the beloved.”87 For this purpose he was redeemed by the blood of Christ, that he might be “among the first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb, and might sing a new song before the throne with those who have the Father’s name written in their foreheads, a song which no man can learn but the hundred and forty and four thousand that were redeemed from the earth.”88 For this purpose he was called by the gospel, and regenerated and sanctified by the Spirit, “that he should show forth the praises of him who hath called him out of darkness into his marvellous light.”89 “This people have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise.”90 For this purpose, finally, he will at length be glorified, that, with the four living creatures,91 and the four and twenty elders, and ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands of holy angels, he may say—“Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.”92 Amen.


1 παῤῥησάζεσθαι et summa cum libertate exponere.
2 Ps. 111:3.
3 שם שמים.
4 השם.
5 Deut. 28:58.
6 Ps. 20:1.
7 Isa. 50:10.
8 הושיה.
9 Pro. 30:4.
10 Jer. 10:6.
11 Ex. 34:6, 7.
12 John 17:6.
13 Θεοπρέπεια.
14 Ex. 15:11, נאדר בקדש
15 Here it may be proper to remind the reader, that the words Hallow and Sanctify, both of which occasionally occur in the exposition of the first petition, are of similar import, and answer to the same term in the Latin original. In some cases I have preferred “Hallow,” because it was fitted to show the bearing of the remarks on the clause, as it stands in our English Bible, Hallowed be thy name. In other cases, I judged it more proper to employ the word “Sanctify,” either because, in the connection in which it stood, it was more agreeable to modern usage, or because it had been employed by our translators in the parallel passages adduced in illustration. Had it been practicable to adhere wholly to either of those terms, a certain amount of ambiguity from which our author is wholly free might have been avoided. With this explanation the criticisms found below on the words Holy, Sanctify, Hallow, and the like, will, I trust, appear, even to the English reader, to be strictly in point, and beautifully illustrative of the general argument.—T.
16 Ex. 14:17, 18.
17 Lev. 10:3.
18 Ezek. 28:22.
19 Chap. 36:23; 38:16, 23.
20 φιλανθρωπία, sive pietas erga genus humanum.
21 מוסד.
22 Ps. 8:5. Heb. 2:7.
23 Rom. 8:29.
24 John 12:27.
25 Ver. 28.
26 Ps. 103:22.
27 Ps. 145:10.
28 Ps. 148:3–5.
29 Ps. 19:1, 2.
30 Ps. 107:43.
31 Jer. 9:24.
32 Ps. 103:20.
33 Rev. 4:10, 11.
34 Ps. 135:1, 2, 3, 19, 20, 21.
35 1 Pet. 2:9, 12. Mat. 5:16. 1 Cor. 10:31.
36 Isa. 26:8.
37 Ps. 40:17.
38 Rev. 1:8, 11.
39 Ps. 57:5.
40 Ps. 115:1.
41 Eph. 1:17.
42 Ps. 51:15.
43 Ps. 111:3.
44 Rom. 5:2.
45 Isa. 10:13. Dan. 4:30.
46 1 Cor. 4:7.
47 Ps. 29:2.
48 Isa. 66:3. Luke 18:11, 12
49 Isa. 5:12.
50 Rom. 2:23, 24.
51 Rom. 1:20.
52 Acts 1:3.
53 John 4:11–14.
54 Mat. 13:31.
55 Mat. 24:32.
56 Heb. 9:12.
57 Ps. 104:24.
58 Ps. 8:1, 3, 4.
59 Ps. 71:14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24.
60 Apud Arrianum, Diss. L. I. C. XVI. “Verba prolixiuscula sunt; ideoque Latine solummodo adscribam ex versione Hieronymi Wolfii.” Not having at hand the original Greek of Epictetus, whose plain and direct, though unadorned style, I should otherwise have endeavoured faithfully to represent, I must satisfy myself with translating from the Latin version of Jerome Wolff, of which Witsius has availed himself.—Tr.
61 Pro. 3:6.
62 כל מעשיך יהיו לשם שמים.
63 Col. 3:23.
64 προφάσει.
65 ἐχ ψυχῆς.
66 1 Cor. 10:31.
67 Book III. Ch. XIX. Sect. XCVII.
68 Arrian. Diss. L. II. C. XIX.
69 ἐις τὸν Θεὸν ἀφορῶντας ἐν παντὶ μικρῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ.
70 L. III. § XIII.
71 Καὶ πᾶν, καὶ τὸ μικρότατον ὅυτως ποιεῖν, ὡς τῆς ἀμφότερωυ πρὸς ἄλληλα συνδέσεως μεμνημένον· ὄυτε γὰρ ἀνθρώπινον τὶ ἄνευ τῆς ἐπὶ τὰ Θεῖα συναφορᾶς εὖ πραξεις, ὄυτε ἔμπαλιν.
72 Philip. 2:15.
73 Philip. 1:11.
74 John 15:8.
75 2 Cor. 8:23.
76 Ps. 42:10.
77 John 17:4.
78 Heb. 12:2.
79 Acts 5:41.
80 2 Cor. 6:8
81 φιλοτιμίαν.
82 2 Cor. 5:9.
83 1 Cor. 4:11–13.
84 Phil. 2:30.
85 Isa. 42:10–12.
86 Job 35:10, 11.
87 Eph. 1:5, 6.
88 Rev. 14:1, 3, 4.
89 1 Pet. 2:9.
90 Isa. 43:21.
91 The four beasts. Every reader of taste must regret this translation. In spite of long custom, which has greatly abated the harshness of the sound, the word awakens a most improper association. By this means the judgment is misled, and finds difficulty in connecting the strange expression with the allegorical meaning of the passage. It would be out of place to introduce here an inquiry into the symbols of the Apocalpse.—Tr.
92 Rev. 5:11–14.

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